All Girls’ Best Friends? Care Migration and the Care Diamond in Ukraine in the Context of Population Aging
This research focuses on the dynamics of the ‘care economy’ in Ukraine in conditions of demographic change and feminisation of migration fluxes. The key analytical concept used to study operation of Ukrainian care economy is Shahra Razavi’s ‘care diamond’, which is understood as the architecture that explains the relationship between the state, market, family and community in providing care. The paper argues that increasing out-migration of women from Ukraine entails a ‘care deficit’ in society and alters the operation of the care diamond so that the family has an increasing role. In turn, the family tends to outsource its care functions to the market, but remains responsible for organising and funding paid homecare. The paper shows that the emerging ‘care crises’ in Ukraine results from the strategy of ‘crisis transfer’ employed by post-industrial nations to shift the burden of multiple crises, care crises among them, from the nucleus of the word system to its periphery. In conclusion, the paper offers proposals to develop coherent policies aimed to cover key sectors of the care diamond, with a special focus on the market and non-profit sectors.