• Nădlac, Speenhamland: Modalities of Closure in a Small Diaspora

    Drawing on ethnographic evidence from the town of Nădlac, home of the largest Slovak community in Romania and the biggest road border-crossing between Hungary and Romania, the paper debates the impact of the newly built A1 highway upon the local community of nădlăcani. It argues that the historical attachment of this peasant community to its land, the post-1989 crossborder trafficking, a lack of local work opportunities and the recent construction of the highway, have produced a social and economic situation akin to some of the nineteenth century post- Speenhamland cases analyzed by Karl Polanyi. In line with Polanyi’s arguments, I show the modalities of closure that have entrapped the community and the vocal local reactions to this process. Overall, the paper exposes the intricate social, political and economic relations between local Slovaks, the Romanian state and the EU, on which the development of the community of Nădlac largely depends.

  • Tax and Transfer Policies and the Female Labor Supply in the EU

    The growing microsimulation literature suggests that effective tax rates on women are ineffeciently high in many countries. However, there is no consensus in the economic literature about the female labor supply consequences of these high effective tax rates. This study uses a tax – benefit microsimulation model EUROMOD to estimate the effect of tax and transfer policies on the female labor supply. A main contribution lies predominantly in the rich structure of the data, which cover the EU-27 countries for 2005-2009.

    Moreover, this study uses a novel way to deal with the endogeneity of taxes and benefits at the individual level. I create a group-level instrumental variable based on a fixed sample of women drawn from the whole EU that serves as a behaviorally-neutral measure of work incentives. Results of the instrumental variable estimation suggest that a 10 percentage point increase in the participation tax rate decreases female employment probability by 2 percentage points. The effect is higher for more educated women and differs substantially across countries.

  • The Process of Readmission and Social integration of Returnees in Serbia

    Readmission policy serves as an instrument to return migrants and asylum seekers from European countries to countries of origin, in this particular case, Serbia.

    This research focuses on the problem of Roma migration from Serbia to EU countries and their deportation back to Serbia after the Readmission Agreement (YEAR). After the signing of the readmission agreements and the first returnees arrived, a systematic reintegration of the Roma population in Serbia began, along with the recognition of Roma as a national minority.

    The Roma communities in Serbia are concerned by the issues of chronic poverty, high unemployment, stereotypes and discrimination, lower level of education and the alarmingly low levels of health care for the Roma. This situation indicates the need to improve their social status at both the regional and the national levels.

    This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the conditions of readmission and subsequent integration of Roma returnees in Serbia, covering the period up to October 2011.

    The research combines different methodologies of data gathering and analysis and includes statistical data and official records, opinion polling and a sample of 120 Roma returning to Serbia. Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of the Roma population, local institutions and NGOs.

  • The Post-EU-Integration Migration of the Polish and Intergenerational Relations: The case of health professionals migrating from Poland to the UK

    The paper aims at analysing the effects of migration of Polish health professionals to the UK following Poland’s accession to the European Union. The research examines the impact on both the economy and the society, in particular in the context of intergenerational relations.

    The first part depicts the context of the migration processes. The second one, presents major theories of migration and intergenerational relations relevant to the case study. Thirdly, it analyses the scale of the health professionals’ migration, as well as benefits and costs of migration for their homeland country and the society, particularly, the changes to intergenerational relations within the family.

  • Return Retirement Migration Flow from EU Countries to Northeast Serbia

    The ongoing emigration from underdeveloped countries of South and East Europe started in the 1960s and 1970s. The expected significant return from temporary work abroad has not happened, not even with the first generation of migrants, who receive retirement pensions. Although the landscape of emigration areas clearly indicates that significant personal capital has been invested into increasing the standard of living in the region of origin, permanent reverse migrations has not reached the expected intensity. Instead of permanent returns, temporary migrations occur during longer or shorter holidays, while demographic decline and aging populations characterise emigration areas.

    This paper presents results of empirical research conducted with 340 retirees from northeast Serbia. Very important factors in retirees’ decisions to return to their homeland or stay in their host country include differences in the quality of health and elderly care. A comprehensive strategy for stimulating return migration is a necessary condition for increasing foreign remittances to the home country.

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