• Tax and Transfer Policies and the Female Labor Supply in the EU

    The growing microsimulation literature suggests that effective tax rates on women are ineffeciently high in many countries. However, there is no consensus in the economic literature about the female labor supply consequences of these high effective tax rates. This study uses a tax – benefit microsimulation model EUROMOD to estimate the effect of tax and transfer policies on the female labor supply. A main contribution lies predominantly in the rich structure of the data, which cover the EU-27 countries for 2005-2009.

    Moreover, this study uses a novel way to deal with the endogeneity of taxes and benefits at the individual level. I create a group-level instrumental variable based on a fixed sample of women drawn from the whole EU that serves as a behaviorally-neutral measure of work incentives. Results of the instrumental variable estimation suggest that a 10 percentage point increase in the participation tax rate decreases female employment probability by 2 percentage points. The effect is higher for more educated women and differs substantially across countries.

  • The social status of part-time workers in Romania and Hungary

    Part-time work as a particular and increasingly widespread form of atypical employment has been regarded from a variety of perspectives and consequently assessed in so many contradictory ways. Carrying out paid work in alternative – reduced – working-time schedules has emerged as an increasingly popular way of gainful employment starting with women entering the labour market in the post-war period in Western Europe. Women’s high concentration in usually lower status part-time jobs was conducive to creating and maintaining vertical sex segregation between men and women, perpetuating at the same time all the disadvantages that a part-time employee accumulates during his/her working career. Women’s influx into the labour market in Central and Eastern European socialist regimes led to similar sex differences in working life patterns in the two regions with the notable exception of part-time employment. Similarly to other forms of atypical work part-time was virtually non-existent in the state controlled labour market of the socialist countries.

  • It Is Not a Choice, It Is a Must: Family and Gender Implications of Elder Care on Migration from Slovakia to Austria.

    This paper focuses on domestic elderly care workers from Slovakia working in Austria. The key emphasis is on considering the impact of migration on the family in the country of origin, on the aggregate effects of the ‘life in motion’ of women and their absence in the household. In addition, it emphasises transnational household and transnational family as a mode to maintain social, economic and emotional ties between migrant and household in the country of origin. The study explores this 24-hour, live-in job from the perspective of gender and transnationalism.

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