The Roma migrations also become part of the context of very debatable issues regarding the migration processes in European countries in the public, political and scientific space. Little is known about the specifics of Roma migrations; all Roma migrants are often perceived as the same community. The paper discusses the case of Roma migration from Bulgaria to Poland in the example of the so-called Turkish Roma or Muslim Roma. The paper considers their ethno-cultural characteristics as a community/group in the country of origin and the country of migration. The main issues addressed in historical and ethnographic context are: Who are the Turkish Roma in Bulgaria? Why and how did they migrate to Poland? How does migration affect their ethno-cultural development and identity? By answering these questions, conclusions are drawn on the future trends of Roma mobility and its consequences. The research is based on field material from Bulgaria and Poland collected by means of traditional ethnographic techniques (interlocutions, first-hand observations, ethnographic interview life-story approach).
This paper is based on qualitative research analysing the dynamics of the immigration processes in Lithuania. It discloses the social developments of so-called ‘new immigrant’ groups – particularly those from China and Turkey – by analysing and comparing their current social situation in Lithuania. The results of the research provide the most up-to-date empirical data available on the peculiarities of Chinese and Turkish immigration to Lithuania, including the social developments and forms of social organisation of immigrant groups; their internal and external social resources, and their integration and immigration experiences on an individual and group level.